The hottest innovation to promote the mechanizatio

2022-07-30
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Through the rapid development in recent years, the problem of Agricultural Mechanization in the plains and fields of Hunan Province has been basically solved and has entered a new stage of upgrading. However, the mechanization of characteristic industries in Hilly and mountainous areas is still in its infancy, and the lack or weakness is widespread, which needs comprehensive measures and innovative promotion

develop characteristic industries and explore multiple values

Hunan is a hilly and mountainous region as a whole. The cultivated land area in Pinghu Lake is less than 20%, the cultivated land area in Hilly and mountainous areas accounts for more than 70% and covers more than 60% of the population. Most of the hilly and mountainous areas are poor areas. Characteristic industries are an important source of income for local farmers' families. The characteristic economic crops produced in Hilly and mountainous areas, such as coarse cereals, sugar, tea, fruit, mulberry, hemp, vegetables and medicinal materials, constitute the multiple values of agricultural products in Hunan Province

nowadays, all regions are trying to promote industrial poverty alleviation, mainly promoting the development of characteristic industries. The development of characteristic industries in Hilly and mountainous areas is not only a strong contribution to enriching the effective and safe supply of national agricultural products, but also a strong support for farmers to get rid of poverty and become rich. However, characteristic industries need special mechanized means to support. With the increasing pursuit of effective production and decent work by farmers, the problems of difficult and expensive employment have become prominent. Mechanization has become a necessary means and an inevitable way to realize the industrialization of characteristic products. Practice has proved that mechanization is a necessary condition for high yield and efficiency. Promoting the mechanization of characteristic industries in Hilly and mountainous areas is not only a specific industrial revolution, but also a profound social change

at present, agricultural mechanization in Hilly and mountainous areas is faced with many constraints: first, the terrain conditions are poor, the plots are fragmented, the slopes are many, the ridges are many, and the shape is irregular; Second, the planting system is complex, with many varieties of crops and unique operation methods; Third, farmers' income and professional quality are not high, and their ability to purchase new agricultural machinery and accept agricultural mechanization technology is weak; Fourth, it is difficult to research and develop applicable agricultural machinery, the market scale is small, and the after-sales service cost is high; Fifth, the amount of agricultural machinery equipment per unit area is large and the investment benefit is low. It is estimated that the agricultural machinery equipment per unit area of cultivated land in Hilly and mountainous areas at the same level is about 3.3 times that in Pinghu District, and the payback period of agricultural machinery equipment is more than 1 time longer than that in plain areas; Sixth, there is not much experience to learn from. European and American countries basically do not regard hilly and mountainous areas as agricultural resources. Japan and South Korea mainly focus on rice production, and there are not many mature equipment suitable for economic forest and fruit industry. Therefore, we need to find a way out of the dilemma, make an article at a place without words, and promote the mechanization of characteristic industries in Hilly and mountainous areas, which is the best platform to forge China's high-level R & D and manufacturing capacity of agricultural machinery

The 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China put forward and made great efforts to implement the strategy of Rural Revitalization to drive the modernization of agriculture and rural areas into the fast lane. Since the reform and opening up, the modernization of industrial transportation, cities and national defense has developed rapidly and achieved remarkable results. However, the pace of agricultural and rural modernization is relatively slow, some industries are still in the stage of human and animal operation, some villages are still not out of poverty and backwardness, and many agricultural related systems still do not meet the requirements of the development of market economy. The 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China put forward the idea of coordinating urban and rural economic and social development, taking rural economic and social development into overall consideration in the overall national economic and social development, emphasizing that solving the "three rural" issues should be given priority, paying more attention to rural areas, farmers, supporting agriculture, and realizing the common prosperity of urban and rural areas. The proposal and effective implementation of the Rural Revitalization Strategy have put agriculture and rural areas on the important agenda of Party and government leaders at all levels. Various means, including capital investment, to support the modernization of agriculture and rural areas are growing rapidly. In 2014, enterprises above the scope completed 73.8787 million tons of products. This has ensured that the modernization of agriculture and rural areas has entered the fast lane from the two dimensions of strategic planning and policy design

with the deepening of agricultural and rural reforms, the characteristic industries in Hilly and mountainous areas have ushered in new opportunities for development. The confirmation of rural land rights has been gradually put in place. The proposal of "keeping the land contracting relationship stable and unchanged for a long time, and extending it for another 30 years after the expiration of the second round of land contracting" has ushered in new opportunities for large-scale land management and centralized regulation, and it is becoming more and more feasible to carry out land transformation in a centralized manner. Agricultural supply side structural reform is being vigorously promoted, creating new development opportunities and broad market space for characteristic agricultural products in Hilly and mountainous areas. With the increasing number of large-scale agricultural operators, they are eager to reduce costs through the development of mechanization. At the same time, the mechanization of the key links of bulk crops in the plain and Pingba areas has been basically solved, and the whole has moved into the stage of improving quality and efficiency. The competent agricultural machinery departments at all levels can spare more energy to plan to promote the mechanization in Hilly and mountainous areas. The market competition of traditional agricultural machinery products is becoming increasingly fierce, and some products have excess capacity. Some agricultural machinery production enterprises looking for new breakthroughs and growth points are running into the "blue ocean" of Agricultural Mechanization in Hilly and mountainous areas

at present, China is in a critical period of transformation and upgrading of agricultural mechanization. Hilly and mountainous areas have become a prominent growth pole for the "comprehensive, whole process, high-quality and efficient" development of agricultural mechanization. Under the background that the problem of Agricultural Mechanization in plain and plain areas of China has been basically solved and the production capacity of agricultural machinery products is relatively surplus, we should vigorously promote agricultural mechanization in Hilly and mountainous areas, give full play to the important role of integrated technology of agricultural mechanization, saving costs and increasing efficiency, promoting scale operation and improving the competitiveness of agricultural products in the market, so that farmers in Hilly and mountainous areas can work more decently and share more of the dividends of national agricultural mechanization development, To ensure that agricultural and rural modernization can be realized on schedule is not only a political requirement, but also a call of the market. From a political point of view, to make up for the shortcomings of Agricultural Mechanization in Hilly and mountainous areas is to accelerate the modernization of agriculture and rural areas and practically implement the party's political program; From an economic point of view, the implementation of mechanized coverage of agricultural production in Hilly and mountainous areas is to effectively expand the value space of characteristic planting and breeding industry and open up a new world for agricultural machinery production enterprises

the existing practical achievements have laid a good foundation for overcoming the difficult problems of Agricultural Mechanization in Hilly and mountainous areas. In the past decades, agricultural mechanization, especially the exploration and promotion of fruit tea mechanization in hilly areas in recent years, has developed many applicable machines and tools, accumulated a lot of valuable experience, and effectively mobilized the enthusiasm of farmers in hilly areas for the development of agricultural mechanization. In terms of applicable machines and tools, the self-propelled rotary cultivator, light crawler tractor, mountain rail conveyor, fertilizer deep applicator, biomass fertilizer making machine, forest reclamation machine, remote control aircraft, efficient and precise pesticide applicator, various micro cultivators, tea harvesters, tea making machines, seed spreader (strip and hole), micro irrigation and drip irrigation equipment, and sports seedling (seedling) raising facilities developed by Hunan Province have all passed the practical test, The transformation and improvement can be carried out according to different farming requirements. As long as the bold exploration is carried out according to the idea of "adapting the land to the machine and integrating the machine and art", the successful mechanization of several characteristic industries in Hilly and mountainous areas can be quickly formed, and the color changes with the thickness of the film. In terms of the technical route of agricultural mechanization, Hunan Province has successfully explored the technical route of the whole process mechanization of rape, organized and carried out the mechanization pilot of tea, peanut, potato, carrot and other crops, and summarized and popularized the three soil improvement and machine adaptation modes of "Z-shaped connection, apple cutting soil improvement, and rail tractor uphill", which have laid a solid foundation for accelerating the Agricultural Mechanization in Hilly and mountainous areas

comprehensive measures according to local conditions

select mature machine technology to create a demonstration model at suitable points. The natural conditions and planting and breeding conditions in Hilly and mountainous areas vary greatly. The implementation of agricultural mechanization must be carried out steadily in accordance with local conditions. The agricultural machinery department must first select the mature machines and tools and agricultural mechanization technologies, test them successfully in the appropriate industrial links, and then the process will last for about 120 days for large-scale promotion. The mature demonstration results will be used to show the farmers and lead them to work. At present, there are many mature machines and tools and agricultural mechanization technologies to choose from. Agricultural machinery departments at all levels can choose several mature points to move first. In the early stage, priority can be given to the large-scale characteristic industries and the key link breakthroughs that farmers are most looking forward to solving. As long as the mature model is built well and several on-site demonstration trainings are conducted, the agricultural mechanization technology can be extended

promote the transformation of suitable soil to improve the agricultural mechanization conditions in Hilly and mountainous areas. Practice has proved that agricultural mechanization in Hilly and mountainous areas is a process of mutual adaptation of machinery and land. It is necessary to select suitable machinery and land, and also to change the soil layer to slightly adhere to the printer platform. Last year, Hunan Provincial Bureau of agricultural machinery summarized and popularized three types of soil transformation modes suitable for machine fields, namely "Z-shaped connection, apple cutting for soil improvement, and rail tractor climbing up the mountain", which has provided a new way for Agricultural Mechanization in Hilly and mountainous areas. Practice in various places has proved that as long as the ideas are right, it is not difficult to do it, and the cost is not much. The farmers are very welcome. All localities can explore more, summarize and refine more good routines and models that are more applicable

intensify efforts to cultivate agricultural machinery cooperatives, a new business entity. Agricultural machinery cooperatives are the most powerful and dynamic new agricultural operators, the best platform to promote the organic connection between small farmers and modern agriculture, and also the best carrier to promote agricultural mechanization in Hilly and mountainous areas. Whether it is to build a model of mechanization or to transform the land suitable for the machine, we should closely rely on the local agricultural machinery cooperatives and let them take the lead. The Agricultural Machinery Cooperatives in Hunan Province have developed rapidly, and now they need to do a good job in standardized management. The Party group of the Agricultural Machinery Bureau has put forward the requirements of "true cooperation, true dividends and true sharing", which must be kept in mind and grasped by the administrative department of agricultural machinery. This year, Hunan Province has also expanded the scope of support for the construction of Modern Agricultural Machinery Cooperatives to all planting and breeding industries. Hilly and mountainous areas should seize the opportunity and take effective measures to speed up the development of Agricultural Machinery Cooperatives

do everything possible to improve the R & D and manufacturing capacity of agricultural machinery and equipment. The relevant national plans clearly put forward the need to establish a collaborative innovation mechanism between industry, University and Research Institute to drive the R & D and production capacity of China's agricultural machinery and equipment to a new level. The Finance Department of Hunan Province has officially set up a special project for the innovation and development of agricultural machinery. This year, the first supporting project has been launched. The selection scheme for supporting projects next year will be issued soon. All units in all regions can actively apply. Policy is guidance and guidance. Agricultural machinery R & D units and production enterprises should act on the wind and make great efforts in the R & D and manufacturing of new and applicable agricultural machinery. In recent years, some local governments, scientific research institutions and production enterprises in Hunan Province have spent money to promote the research and development of agricultural machinery. The results are very good and worth learning

combined with agricultural machinery, agronomic processing and other departments for comprehensive implementation and promotion. Agricultural Mechanization in Hilly and mountainous areas involves many links, such as planting and breeding technology, land regulation, agricultural product processing, agricultural machinery and agricultural mechanization technology research and development, and requires the cooperation of relevant departments to form a joint force. As the leading Party, the agricultural machinery department must have the idea of coordinated operation and comprehensive implementation, not rigidly adhere to the division of functions, take things as the medium, work with people, and actively take the initiative to make the cause of Agricultural Mechanization in Hilly and mountainous areas into a sweet cake that multiple departments actively participate in and are willing to share. Agricultural machinery departments should not only actively make good use of the central financial support policy, but also actively strive for the provincial, municipal and county governments to issue support policies, especially implement the purchase subsidy policy in compliance with the law, actively complete the machinery and technology support within the existing subsidy range, and strive to expand the breadth and depth of the purchase subsidy

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