The development trend of advanced manufacturing te

2022-08-05
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The development trend of advanced manufacturing technology in the future

with the individualization and diversification of market demand, the general trend of the development of advanced manufacturing technology in the future is to develop in the direction of precision, flexibility, networking, virtualization, intelligence, cleanliness, integration and globalization

in the 21st century, with the continuous development of high and new technologies such as electronics and information, and with the individualization and diversification of market demand, the general trend of the development of advanced manufacturing technology in the future is to develop in the direction of precision, flexibility, networking, virtualization, intelligence, cleanliness, integration and globalization

at present, the development trend of advanced manufacturing technology generally includes the following aspects:

1. Information technology plays an increasingly important role in the development of advanced manufacturing technology.

informatization is the trend of today's social development, and information technology is developing at an unimaginable speed. Information technology is also injecting and integrating into manufacturing technology, promoting the continuous development of manufacturing technology. It can be said that the formation and development of advanced manufacturing technology are all related to the application and injection of information technology. It improves the technical content of manufacturing technology and makes qualitative changes in traditional manufacturing technology. The role of information technology in the development of manufacturing technology has now occupied the first place. It will play a more important role in the development of advanced manufacturing technology in the 21st century

information technology promotes the modernization of design technology, the precision and rapidity of manufacturing, the flexibility and intelligence of automation technology, and the networking and globalization of the whole manufacturing process. The mainframe of various advanced production modes adopts horizontal structure development, such as CIMS, concurrent engineering, lean production, agile manufacturing, virtual enterprise and virtual manufacturing, all of which are supported by the development of information technology

2. Continuous modernization of design technology

product design is the soul of manufacturing industry. The main development trend of modern design technology is:

(1) computerization of design means

based on the realization of computer calculation and drawing, it is currently highlighted in the application of numerical simulation or virtual reality technology in design, as well as the development of modern product modeling theory, and is developing towards intelligent design

(2) new design ideas and methods continue to appear

such as concurrent design, design for X - DFX, robust design, optimal design, reverse engineering, etc

(3) develop towards life cycle design

the traditional design is limited to product design, while the life cycle design changes from simple, specific and detailed design to complex overall design and decision-making, and the whole life cycle of products including design, manufacturing, testing, sales, use, maintenance, scrapping and other stages should be comprehensively considered

(4) the design process has changed from simply considering technical factors to comprehensively considering technical, economic and social factors

the design is not simply pursuing the advancement and level of a certain performance index, but paying attention to the impact of market, price, safety, aesthetics, resources, environment, etc

3. Forming and improved manufacturing technology is developing towards precision, accuracy, less energy consumption and no pollution.

forming manufacturing technology is the general name of unit technologies such as casting, plastic processing, connection and powder metallurgy. Looking forward to the 21st century, the forming and manufacturing technology is developing from manufacturing workpiece blanks, from near net shape proccess to directly manufacturing workpiece precision forming or net shape proccess

according to the prediction of the international Machining Technology Association, by the beginning of the next century, the combination of plastic forming and grinding will replace the cutting of most small and medium-sized parts. The modification technology mainly includes heat treatment and surface engineering. The main development trend is to achieve accurate part performance, precise shape and size, and obtain various surface (coating) layers with special performance requirements through various new precision heat treatments and completions, while greatly reducing energy consumption and completely eliminating environmental pollution

4. The processing and manufacturing technology is developing towards ultra precision, ultra-high speed and the development of a new generation of manufacturing equipment

(1) ultra precision processing technology

at present, the processing accuracy reaches 0.025 μ m. Surface roughness reaches 0.0045 μ m. It has entered the era of nano processing. The ultra precision cutting thickness is close to the visible wave band or even shorter wave band from the current infrared wave band; With the increase of the load, the system pressure of the ultra precision oiling source increases, and the machining machine tool is developing in the direction of multi-function modularization; Superfinishing materials are expanded from metal to non-metal

(2) ultra high speed cutting

at present, the cutting speed of ultra high speed cutting of aluminum alloy has exceeded 1600m/min, that of cast iron is 1500m/min, that of ultra heat resistant nickel alloy is 300m/min, and that of titanium alloy is 200m/min. The development of ultra-high speed cutting has shifted to the machining of some difficult to machine materials

(3) development of new generation manufacturing equipment

market competition and the development of new products, new technologies and new materials promote the research and development of new processing equipment. A typical example is the development of "parallel truss structure CNC machine tools" (or commonly known as "six leg" machine tools). It breaks through the structure scheme of the traditional machine tool and adopts the change of the length of six axes to realize the change of the machining pose of the tool relative to the workpiece

5. Process has developed from craft to engineering science, and process simulation technology has developed rapidly.

an important development trend of advanced manufacturing technology is that process design has moved from empirical judgment to quantitative analysis, and processing technology has developed from craft to engineering science

the working mode of the Provincial Institute of Metrology at random

the numerical simulation and physical simulation of the hot working process is an important development direction and an important symbol for the hot working process to move from technology to science. The numerical simulation is applied to the process design of casting, forging, welding, heat treatment, etc., and combined with physical simulation and expert system to determine the process parameters, optimize the process scheme, predict the possible defects in the processing process and the preventive measures to be taken, and control and protect the quality of the processed workpiece. Adopting this scientific simulation technology and combining it with a small amount of experimental verification to replace the method that everything had to go through a large number of repeated experiments in the past can not only save a lot of human and material resources, but also solve some complex problems that cannot be directly studied in the laboratory through numerical simulation.

process simulation has also been developed and applied to metal cutting process and product design process. The latest development is to carry out virtual forming and manufacturing in the concurrent engineering environment, so that when the product design is completed, the preparation for forming and manufacturing (such as casting) is completed at the same time

6. The boundaries between specialties and disciplines gradually fade and disappear.

with the continuous development of advanced manufacturing technology, the boundaries between hot and cold processing, processing, testing, logistics and assembly processes, design, material application and processing and manufacturing gradually fade and gradually move towards integration. For example, the emergence of CAD, CAPP and cam has integrated design and manufacturing; The development of precision forming technology makes it possible to directly provide parts close to the final shape and size by thermal machining. Combined with grinding, it may cover the machining of most parts and weaken the boundary of cold and hot machining; The emergence of Rapid Prototyping/parts manufacturing (RPM) technology is a major breakthrough in the manufacturing field in recent 20 years. It can automatically and quickly materialize the design idea into a prototype with certain structure and function or directly manufacture parts, and weaken the boundaries of design and manufacturing; The emergence of robot processing workstation and FMS has integrated the processing process, detection process and logistics process; Modern manufacturing system makes automation technology and traditional process inseparable; The preparation and molding of many new materials are completed at the same time, so it is difficult to draw a clear line between material application and manufacturing technology

this trend is reflected in the gradual weakening of the concept of professional workshop in production, and the gradual increase of production methods that integrate various professional technologies in one equipment, one production line, one section or workshop

7. Green manufacturing will become an important feature of the manufacturing industry in the 21st century.

increasingly stringent environmental and resource constraints make green manufacturing more and more important. It will be an important feature of the manufacturing industry in the 21st century. Accordingly, green manufacturing technology will also achieve rapid development. It is mainly reflected in:

(1) the green product design technology makes the product meet the requirements of environmental protection, human health, low energy consumption and high resource utilization in the life cycle

(2) in the whole manufacturing process, green manufacturing technology makes the minimum negative impact on the environment, the minimum discharge of waste and harmful substances, and the highest resource utilization efficiency. Green manufacturing technology mainly includes green resources, green production process and green products

(3) product recycling and recycling remanufacture, for example, disassembly and recycling technology of products such as automobiles, and recycling manufacturing technology of ecological factories. It mainly includes the production system factory, which is dedicated to product design, material handling, processing and assembly, and the recovery system factory, which is mainly responsible for the material handling cycle at the end of the product (material use) life cycle

8. Virtual reality technology has been applied more and more in the manufacturing industry.

virtual reality technology in recent years, China's plastic machinery enterprises have expanded their exploration of emerging markets for extruders, mainly including virtual manufacturing technology and virtual enterprise

virtual manufacturing technology will fundamentally change the traditional manufacturing mode of design, trial production, design modification and large-scale production. Before the product is actually manufactured, the soft prototype is generated in the virtual manufacturing environment to replace the traditional hard prototype for testing, and its performance and manufacturability are predicted and evaluated, so as to shorten the product design and manufacturing cycle, reduce the product development cost, and improve the system's ability to quickly respond to market changes

in order to quickly respond to a certain market demand, the virtual enterprise temporarily forms different enterprises involved in products into a cooperative economic entity without walls, beyond spatial constraints, connected by computer networks and under unified command through the information highway. The characteristics of virtual enterprise are the incompleteness of enterprise function, the dispersion of region and the non permanence of organizational structure, that is, the virtualization of function, organization and region

9. Information technology, management technology and process technology are closely combined, and the advanced manufacturing production mode has been continuously developed.

after the transition from small variety and small batch production to small variety and large batch production and multi variety and small batch production, the manufacturing industry began to adopt the flexible production mode of computer integrated manufacturing system (CIMS) in the 1970s and 1980s, And gradually develop towards intelligent manufacturing technology (IMT) and intelligent manufacturing system (IMS). Lean production (LP), agile manufacturing (AM) and other advanced manufacturing modes have emerged one after another. It is expected that the advanced manufacturing mode will continue to develop at the beginning of the 21st century

the progress of the above-mentioned advanced manufacturing production modes mainly reflects the following five changes:

1) from technology centered to people-centered

2) from the pyramid multi-level

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