Offshore oil equipment industry: the development system and ideas determine the future.
"gold miners may get rich or go bankrupt, but those who sell jeans and tools to gold miners often get rich." However, for China's offshore oil equipment manufacturing industry, which produces "tools" for its own "gold rush", the story may not be so simple
in the lobby of CNOOC headquarters, various promotional videos about deep-sea oil exploration are repeatedly shown on the huge hanging screen. From Zhuhai Gaolan Island, which has 400 market competitiveness and further improved its cliff stone carvings 0 years ago - now it is CNOOC's deep-water offshore engineering equipment manufacturing base - to the slogan of "realizing the leapfrog development of deep-water equipment", various magnificent offshore oil equipment and decomposition diagrams appear on the screen in turn, making many people who work with us stop to watch
with the depletion of onshore oil and gas resources, China has greatly strengthened the development of the South China Sea, especially the deep-sea waters. However, at present, China does not fully possess the technology and equipment for oil and gas exploration and production in the sea area with a water depth of meters. Compared with European and American countries, the R & D and design level of Chinese enterprises is certainly not in the "same heavyweight". Even in the most skilled manufacturing links, there is still a big gap compared with Asian manufacturing powers such as South Korea and Singapore
under the pressure, "equipment first" has become an inevitable choice for China to develop the South China Sea. The upcoming "12th Five Year Plan" for the development of offshore engineering equipment and the "decision of the State Council on accelerating the cultivation of strategic emerging industries" regard equipment manufacturing as a "magic needle for fixing the sea"
however, what is the source power of this industry that is thriving solely for the development of oil and gas resources in the South China Sea? Is China's offshore oil equipment manufacturing industry growing up naturally because of its advantages in the market, or is it being accelerated by the government's development policies? Will the national system make the offshore oil equipment industry the next low-end "made in China"
later ranked "lower"
"each jack up drilling platform made in China only has a localization rate of 24%, and Chinese enterprises can only get 30% of all profits." These figures are surprising, but they are not surprising: since the day when China became a manufacturing power, almost all Chinese enterprises have focused on low value-added links. The offshore oil equipment manufacturing industry also failed to avoid the fate of being "inferior" later
Professor Lian Lian of School of marine and architectural engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University summarized the competition pattern of offshore engineering equipment (including offshore oil equipment) manufacturing industry into eight words: European and American design, Asian manufacturing - different industrial development models from Europe and America to Asia also determine the country's position in the industrial chain
at the top of the mutual selection committee, European and American enterprises have emerged from time to time, monopolizing the design and high-end manufacturing of offshore equipment. They have a leading position in the world and created the "European and American model" of offshore oil equipment manufacturing industry
among them, American multinational companies occupy half of the global offshore oil equipment market, and Houston is the R & D center of global offshore engineering and offshore oil exploitation technology. McDermott of the United States and Technip of France are giant enterprises at the top of this industrial chain. The latter has branches and staff in 48 countries on 5 continents
according to jinxiaojian, general manager of CNOOC Engineering & Construction Department, the second echelon of offshore oil equipment manufacturing is South Korea and Singapore in Asia. As the leader of the middle and low-end manufacturing industry, the two countries have different emphases
Singapore enterprises, known as "high-end manufacturers in low-end manufacturing", have contracted many oil drilling and production platform manufacturing and FPSO (floating production storage and offloading) modification orders in European and American countries
South Korea, which started its manufacturing industry, takes the lead in the world in the number of hand-held orders with its advantages of low price, rapid delivery and high quality. Especially in, Korean enterprises undertook nearly half of the world's offshore engineering platform projects, creating a "Korean model" characterized by large-scale low-cost manufacturing
the talented "Norwegian model" and "Brazilian model" are also envied by international peers. As an ocean engineering country with a long history, it is the first country to enter this field with mature experience. Brazil has also built a developed offshore oil equipment manufacturing industry in a short time. It is understood that Brazil currently has 46 deep-sea drilling vessels in operation, and 28 have been ordered at the same time. Similar to it is Russia, which is also a big resource country
at the last echelon is the "China model" that later ranked "lower". An offshore engineering expert of CNOOC pointed out that, different from the above-mentioned several mature development models, the "China model" is characterized by its weak R & D, design and assembly strength, and its biggest congenital weakness is that the national system led by the government leads to the lack of source power from the market in industrial development. This is also the main reason why China later became "inferior" and had more heart than strength
embarrassment of the "China model"
"China's offshore oil equipment manufacturing industry was created from the very beginning to develop China's territorial sea oil and gas resources. It was not spontaneously produced by the market. The government did not promote the industrial development like the Korean government, but completely led and accelerated the development, which made the industry lose the source power of development." The above-mentioned offshore engineering experts told energy
according to the statistics of Professor Lian, in the next five years, the global offshore engineering equipment industry will usher in a golden stage of development, with a market size of US $276.5 billion. China currently accounts for 15% of the global market share. The market scale will reach 80billion US dollars during the 12th Five Year Plan period, and the investment will exceed 250billion US dollars
such a huge investment, on the one hand, shows the ambition of the Chinese government to develop the offshore oil equipment manufacturing industry; On the other hand, it is also puzzling: since there is such a huge market scale, why not introduce foreign capital and technology for development, and spend a huge amount of money on research and development? In terms of cost alone, it is obviously "not cost-effective" to catch up with European and American countries at the top of the industrial chain and realize independent design and R & D through self-development
"that's because China has no ability to copy the development model of other countries," the above-mentioned marine engineering expert pointed out pointedly. The "European and American model" focuses on innovation, which is beyond the reach of the "Chinese model" with central enterprises as the main force and relying on the development of the national system. The strength of the national system is to win by quantity - to create a huge scale at the current technical level, but still unable to get rid of the lowest link of the industrial chain - production and processing, and unable to occupy the lucrative upstream links, such as the design and development of various cutting-edge equipment, as well as the manufacturing of core components and key materials
taking the world-class deepwater drilling platform "offshore oil 981" which was undocked at the beginning of the year as an example, all its core components, including hydraulic system, diesel engine, steel for key parts, propulsion system, etc., are designed and manufactured by foreign companies, because the unified standards of these components are in the hands of several large international classification societies, and the products designed and developed by Chinese companies can not meet this standard, so they are not recognized
"therefore, the national system of China's offshore oil equipment manufacturing, like other manufacturing industries, can only make a large number of companies engaged in simple steel stress and stress into a linear relationship to be blocked at the low end of the industry chain with the thinnest profits, and hand over the high-end with rich profits, and then be led by the other side before that." The expert said
look back at the most representative "Korean model" in Asia. Although both South Korea and China cut into the offshore equipment industry chain from the manufacturing link, the difference is that South Korea has no offshore oil and gas resources, and its purpose of developing offshore oil equipment manufacturing industry is very simple, just to revitalize this industry to develop economy and obtain profits. The original intention of China to establish this industry is to develop its own offshore oil resources. Therefore, the source power for the development of offshore oil equipment manufacturing industry in the two countries is completely different
there was a well-known saying in the investment community: "gold miners may get rich or go bankrupt, but those who sell jeans and tools to gold miners often get rich." If China develops its equipment manufacturing industry purely for the sake of making money, it may indeed have the same profit prospects as the production of jeans and shirts. However, for China's offshore oil equipment manufacturing industry, which produces "tools" for its own "gold rush", the answer may not be so
in terms of source power, China seems to be similar to Brazil, Russia and other resource countries with offshore oil and gas resources. Unfortunately, the potential of oil and gas resources in the South China Sea is far from that of Brazil and Russia. It is understood that Brazil's subsalt oil reserves may reach 338billion barrels, even exceeding the 264billion barrels of reserves of Saudi Arabia, the world's largest oil producer
therefore, China is far less confident in resources than Brazil and Russia, and it is difficult to make international oil companies flock to China as in Brazil and Russia. If China, like other resource countries, puts forward various requirements to international oil companies, these companies may not choose China. This is why so far, the number of international companies operating in the South China Sea is very limited
it is conceivable that if the South China Sea has oil and gas resources that are as proud of the world as the Gulf of Mexico and the North Sea, the six international oil giants will flock to bid, and China can adopt the "Brazil model", requiring the international oil giants to use the platform made in China and make other equipment in China, so as to bring the company's brand, technology, processing and manufacturing to China, And then drive the rapid rise of China's offshore oil equipment manufacturing industry
however, China is not so lucky: due to certain offshore oil and gas resources, the offshore oil equipment industry is established to develop its own oil and gas; However, the resources are not rich enough to attract international oil giants to exploit. Therefore, the government wants to rely on the strength of central enterprises to invest and boost the offshore oil equipment manufacturing industry
the above experts told energy magazine that innovation in the field of technology cannot be realized by the power of the whole country. "South Korea's shipbuilding industry started 20 years behind China's, but now it has surpassed China's, mainly because of the development system and ideas. China's energy development still does not get rid of the thinking of 'equipment first, development later', rather than developing under existing conditions. In fact, most of the countries with good global oil and gas resources development rely on cooperation or hiring foreign companies to develop, rather than relying entirely on their own Self. "
note: the reprinted contents are indicated with the source. The reprint is for the purpose of transmitting more information, and does not mean to agree with their views or confirm the authenticity of their contents